Children with autism spectrum disorder often have a difficult time mastering important life skills related to social interactions, communication, and transitioning from one activity to the next. They also tend to be more visual learners, meaning they may struggle to follow auditory directions. Our Brecksville ABA therapists have found that social stories are a great way to bridge the gap and effectively teach key skills.
A social story is a visual tool that accurately describes a skill, context, concept, or achievement and incorporate 10 specific criteria. These include having a defined purpose or goal, identifying the most critical information on a certain topic, having a clearly defined title, body, and conclusion, writing that’s in a supportive, positive, and literal voice, and crafting descriptive sentences that answer the basic WH questions. They also incorporate visual aids – graphics, pictures, or sometimes even pictures of the child themselves engaged in the activity or a picture of the exact place where the activity will/would take place. First person language (i.e., “I go to the store”) is often used, but not always.
The concept for social stories was around long before they were called that, but credit is usually given to teacher Carol Gray, a mother of four kids with autism who was looking for ways to help her students as well as her own kids with things like transitions to recess and what to expect in a line.
Today, our Brecksville ABA therapists use and recommend social stories to help with all kinds of scenarios. Some examples include (but aren’t limited to):
- How to use the bus
- Using or sharing toys
- How to talk to friends
- Staying in the house
- Wearing a seatbelt
- Understanding personal space
- Keeping your hands to yourself
- Listening to teachers
- Eye contact/staring
- Using your words
- What to do with big emotions
- Going on a trip (or to the doctor, grocery store, airplane, movies, etc.)
- Hitting, shouting, licking, spitting, biting, etc.
- Asking nicely
- Saying “No Thank You”
- Not using potty words
- Eating at the table
- Brushing teeth
- Using the potty
Social stories are a way that we explain social situations to kids on the autism spectrum to help them learn what they can expect in these scenarios – and what is expected of them. And while they were initially developed for kids with autism, they have turned out to be helpful for kids with other conditions like learning disabilities or intellectual disorders.
How Do Brecksville ABA Therapists Create Effective Social Stories?
Although not every story will work for every kid on the spectrum for every situation. In fact, part of the reason they work so well is because they are highly individualized. Social stories are a great tool for many people with autism because it can be tough for them to pick up on social cues that others notice naturally. Things like body language, eye contact, gestures, facial expressions – these are often difficult to read for kids with autism.
Although anyone can technically write a social story, it’s a good idea to get help from your child’s Brecksville ABA therapists when doing so. We help identify not only the activity with which the child is struggling, but also the specific skills they need to work on, and how we can break down the components of that activity to small, understandable bits.
Keeping it simple is really important. We want to make sure we’re focusing on very specific skills laid out in a very straightforward order with brief explanations as to the reasoning.
The stories can then be read to the child on an ongoing basis – and if possible, right before the event, as a reminder. As the child begins to understand the social situation and what is expected, the story can be phased out.
Research has shown that social stories can have a positive impact on the behavior of children with autism, though we like to also incorporate the use of other reinforcement tools, such as role play, feedback, and video modeling.
Therapy & Wellness Connection – your connection to a life without limitations – provides ABA therapy children in Akron, Cleveland, Brecksville-Broadview Heights and surrounding communities. We also offer summer camp, day programs, education services, vocational counseling and more. Call us at (330) 748-4807 or send us an email.
The Effectiveness of Social Stories among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Meta- Analysis, September 2016, By Mourad Ali Elissa Saad, Dean, College of Education, Arees University, International Journal of Psycho-Educational Sciences
More Blog Entries:
Choosing the Right Cleveland ABA Therapy Provider for Your Child With Autism, Sept. 19, 2022, Brecksville ABA Therapists Blog
As Brecksville ABA therapists, our focus is on the study of behavior. When it comes to children with autism and other conditions, the interest is not only on what the challenging behavior is, but what the motivation – or function – is and how caregivers may be unintentionally reinforcing it. This brings us to the ever-popular approach of time-out.
You’re almost certainly familiar with the “time-out” strategy because it’s very popular. As explained by the CDC, timeout is when a child is removed from where the “misbehavior” occurred – deprived of fun, attention, or some other desired activity. Time-out is used for things like breaking a rule or not following a direction after a warning. It’s effective for lots of neurotypical kids because time-out is boring, and kids don’t usually like to be bored.
However, timeout isn’t effective for addressing all behaviors, and it’s may not be effective for every child. For children with autism spectrum disorder or developmental delay or some other disability, time-out can provide a safe space for them to work on calming themselves. However, it’s not going to be effective if:
- The child is aggressive or using self-injuring behavior.
- The child’s goal is to avoid the activity or interaction with others.
In both of these cases, time-out might inadvertently reinforce the challenging behavior. In the case of self-injurious behavior, putting them in a space alone isn’t likely to stop it. If the child’s goal is to avoid interaction or a non-preferred activity, time-out actually gives them what they want. In effect, adults may be inadvertently giving them a reason to engage in challenging behaviors to achieve the goal of getting in time-out.
Lots of families look forward to celebrating the holidays each year, with Thanksgiving being a particular favorite. But as our Brecksville ABA therapists understand, parents of children on the autism spectrum may be worried that such celebrations are far outside their kids’ comfort zones. After all, the goings-on are seemingly chaotic, and many of the faces, smells, and tastes are not part of the daily routine they’re used to.
The good news is that with some preparation, it is possible for everyone to enjoy these gatherings.
Flexibility is the quality of bending without being easily broken. Our Brecksville ABA therapists know that for kids on the autism spectrum, being emotionally flexible is an incredibly difficult – but critical – skill for success.
It’s not just kids with autism. Flexibility doesn’t come naturally for lots of people. Many of us are creatures of habit. Flexibility is something that must be learned. But it can be much harder for those on the spectrum to master this. In fact, autism is defined as being characterized by restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. It’s part of the diagnostic criteria for autism, and it’s manifested with insistence on inflexible adherence to routines, sameness, and ritualistic patterns of verbal/nonverbal behavior. Even the smallest changes can trigger a meltdown.
But why is this so important? Because change is a part of life. Realistically, no one can indefinitely eat the exact same thing, watch the exact same show, or be in the exact same place with the exact same people all day every day. And to whatever extent you may be able to help ensure continuity of certain patterns or routines, our ABA therapists recognize that helping kids on the spectrum learn to adjust to change will ultimately lead to them being happier, healthier, and more independent.
How Do Brecksville ABA Therapists Teach Flexibility?
Because rigidity is a characteristic of autism, intervening and treating it must be done very carefully. We’re not looking here to turn an inflexible person into a flexible one. What we want is to help each child learn to better adapt to a world that is ever-changing. The world is never going to be constant. There will be things outside of their control, and it’s important that they learn to cope when that happens.
Unlike many other life skills, flexibility is a bit more of an abstract concept. As such, it can be a bit tougher to teach. Our ABA therapy team focuses on stretching their tolerance to routine changes and then providing consistent, positive reinforcement where see it.
For instance, a child may love playing a certain game at therapy. We might start with testing their insistence to always play as the same game piece. Anytime they show increased flexibility, we reward that positively. We might eventually move to playing a different game altogether. The goal is for the child to ultimately adjust more easily (and without challenging behaviors) to unexpected changes in their routine. They can maintain a sense of assertiveness about what they like or what they want while still learning to calmly accept other changes. In other words: Greater flexibility.
Our ABA team also works with many of our clients in the real world, to teach them flexibility strategies to better tolerate change where they are most likely to encounter it.
It’s important that we’re not just tearing them away from rituals and patterns. We are first looking at behaviors we want to replace. That often means early on teaching them to request what they want, to wait for what they want, to self-manage big emotions (namely, anger and disappointment) and to problem solve. We do all this by intentionally, systematically introducing change in ways that are controlled – and then teaching them these skills one by one over time.
It’s important that when they are triggered, that we teach them a workable “plan of action.” This is going to highly depend on the individual, but the gist is to empathize (this is important) and then give them tools to help them de-escalate. This could be deep breathing, it could be squeezing a stress ball, it could taking a break. It’s important when we’re teaching flexibility to remind them that even when situations do shift unexpectedly, there are still things that are unchanged or that they can control. Empowering them to focus on those can go a long way toward improving flexibility in tolerating the larger changes occurring.
Therapy & Wellness Connection – your connection to a life without limitations – provides ABA therapy to children in Cleveland, Brecksville-Broadview Heights, Akron and surrounding communities. We also offer summer camp, day programs, homeschooling, alternative schooling, virtual therapy and education, vocational counseling and more. Call us at (330) 748-4807 or send us an email.
Signs and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
More Blog Entries:
ABA Therapists: Helping Your Child With Autism Transition Back-to-School, Aug. 12, 2021, Brecksville ABA Therapists Blog
Families across Northeast Ohio are gearing up for their summer travel plans. Although vacation is supposed to be a time of relaxation, new experiences and fun, the prospect of it can be overwhelming for families of children with autism. As Brecksville ABA providers, we understand the task can seem daunting.
Autism is often defined by rigidity in routine, while great travel experiences are so often about flexibility. That doesn’t mean it’s impossible. As awareness and accessibility has grown, many businesses and entire communities are offering more inclusive opportunities than ever before. Don’t presume your child won’t enjoy it just because he or she can’t say so!
In our role as ABA (applied behavioral analysis) therapists for children in Northeast Ohio, the most valuable advice is to prepare as much as you can, but don’t put too much pressure on yourself your child if it doesn’t. Expect that things can and will go wrong, but the goal is to enjoy as much of the time as you can.